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团队心智模型相似性与正确性对团队创造力的影响

在职博士网      2014-12-11       来源: 心理学报

团队心智模型相似性与正确性对团队创造力的影响

林晓敏1,2; 白新文1;林琳3
(1中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101) (2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049) (3中央财经大学商学院, 北京 100081)

摘要  现代组织越来越依赖团队进行创造与创新活动, 团队创造力成为理论与实践共同关注的热点问题。最新理论指出, 与个体类似, 团队也是信息加工者, 团队决策实质上也是信息搜寻、编码、存储和提取的认知加工过程。从团队认知角度开展研究是团队创造力领域的新方向。鉴于此, 本研究从团队认知的角度出发, 探讨共享心智模型与团队创造力之间的关系。基于80个信息平台运行维护团队的数据, 研究结果表明, 心智模型的相似性与正确性均能影响团队创造力, 但方向正好相反。心智模型相似性负向预测团队创造力, 而心智模型正确性则正向预测团队创造力。两者还共同影响团队创造力, 当成员心智模型正确性高且相似性低时, 团队创造力最高; 而当成员心智模型彼此相似但错误时, 团队创造力最差。本研究首次将团队认知和团队创造力两个研究领域结合起来, 研究结果有望丰富和拓展两个领域研究成果。

关键词 : 团队创造力,  团队认知,  共享心智模型,  心智模型相似性,  心智模型正确性

Abstract

Modern organizations are increasingly turning to teams for creative work and innovation. Most research studying team creativity has been concentrating on the effects of team interaction behaviors on team creativity. Although team creativity is known as the result of team-level cognitive processes through which information is searched, shared and integrated among team members, little has been done to reveal the cognitive mechanism underlying team creativity. The research of team cognition provides with a novel perspective to understand how teams produce creative ideas and products. Shared mental models (SMMs) is one of the important forms of the team cognition. The current study aimed to examine the effects of two indices of SMMs, mental model similarity and accuracy, respectively, on team creativity. Similarity and accuracy were expected to contribute uniquely, as well as interact, to predict team creativity. Data were obtained form 80 teams in a large high technology corporation in China whose responsibilities were to take charge of the operation, monitoring, maintenance of the online transaction network platform. Individual mental models were elicited by asking participants to make paired comparisons the relevance of each pair of the 10 fault statements. Mental model similarity was indexed by calculating the mean value of Quadratic Assignment Procedure correlation (QAP) within each pair’s responses to the 10 fault statements within each team. Similarly, mental model accuracy was indexed by calculating the mean value of QAP between each team member and subject matter experts within each team. Team creativity was obtained from team performance review archival data. Results indicated that: a) Similarity was significant negatively related to team creativity (b = -0.76, p < 0.01), while accuracy was positively related to team creativity (b = 0.55, p = 0.054). Furthermore, similarity and accuracy interacted to influence team creativity (b = -0.20, p = 0.060). Further analysis showed that, when accuracy was high, similarity was significantly related to team creativity (b = -0.91, p <.01). While accuracy was low, the effect of similarity on team creativity was not significant (b = -0.50, ns). Specifically, while teams with high mental model accuracy but low similarity were at the best position to demonstrate creativity, those with low accuracy and high similarity were rated as the least creative. In contract to prior team performance research, our findings suggested that mental model similarity was negatively related to team creativity which have received little attention among the relationship between similarity and team effectiveness. Furthermore, we also found that the effect was contingent on accuracy such that similarity had a stronger inhibition effect on team creativity when accuracy was high. Results were discussed in terms of the theoretical implications for both team creativity and SMMs literature.

Key words team creativity    team cognition    shared mental models    mental model similarity    mental model accuracy   

全文阅读:全文: PDF (点击下载。568 KB) 

来源:心理学报  2014, 46(11)

 

 

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